Tuesday, May 1st, 2018

Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study

Methods Study participants were women aged 40–65 years who had experienced a natural menopause from the UK Women’s Cohort Study between baseline and first follow-up. Natural menopause was defined as the permanent cessation of menstrual periods for at least 12 consecutive months. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate diet at baseline. Reproductive history of participants was also recorded. Regression modelling, adjusting for confounders, was used to assess associations between diet and age at natural menopause.

Results During the 4-year follow-up period, 914 women experienced a natural menopause. A high intake of oily fish and fresh legumes were associated with delayed onset of natural menopause by 3.3 years per portion/day (99% CI 0.8 to 5.8) and 0.9 years per portion/day (99% CI 0.0 to 1.8), respectively. Refined pasta and rice was associated with earlier menopause (per portion/day: −1.5 years, 99% CI −2.8 to −0.2). A higher intake of vitamin B6 (per mg/day: 0.6 years, 99% CI 0.1 to 1.2) and zinc (per mg/day: 0.3 years, 99% CI −0.0 to 0.6) was also associated with later age at menopause. Stratification by age at baseline led to attenuated results.

Conclusion Our results suggest that some food groups (oily fish, fresh legumes, refined pasta and rice) and specific nutrients are individually predictive of age at natural menopause.

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

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Wednesday, June 6th, 2012

Foods for the #menopause

Alternative to HRT?

Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring hormones found in plant foods which can weakly mimic the female hormone, oestrogen.  However, they only do this when the females own oestrogen levels fall due to the menopause.  As well as possibly helping to reducing some menopausal symptoms, especially hot flushes, they may help reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis. Although much weaker than HRT, they are believed to not increase the risk of breast or endometrial cancer.

Currently there is much research being done on phytoestrogens and what’s coming out is not always clear cut! If you do want to give them a go, Phytoestrogens seem to work best coming from the diet rather than supplements and they may work more efficiently if eaten with a diet high in fish oils and seeds which contain the omega 3 fatty acids.  So don’t forget to get some oily fish in your diet every week.


Phytoestrogens are found on many fruits, vegetables, seeds and beans, but are found in the highest concentrations in soya products, including tofu and soya milk, chick peas, linseeds and wheat bran.


Making sure you are the right weight for height can also minimise menopausal symptoms


Bone health

During the menopause, the bone looses calcium at an accelerated rate, so anything that helps to alleviate this is important.  As well as maintaining weight bearing exercise, the diet can play a big part.  Calcium contributes about 1kg to the average woman’s body.  As well as being vital in bone strength, it aids blood in clotting, helps the nerves transmit signals, prevents muscle cramps and skin problems, can help insomnia, depression and cognitive impairment. To provide the body with essential calcium, you should eat a wide range of calcium rich foods which include, milk, cheese and yogurts, fortified soya milk, beans, tofu, sardines, dried fruit, beans and some peas and seeds.  In order to absorb calcium, you need to eat vitamin D, a fat soluble vitamin found in oily fish, eggs and butter or margarine.  Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables has also been shown to protect the bones, and phytoestrogens may be protective too.  To much salt and alcohol in the diet however are detrimental to bone health.



Heart health

Increased risk of heart disease is also a result of the menopause.  Certainly, as women age, they catch up with men in the risk of cardiovascular disease.  There are several ways of decreasing the risk of heart disease and strokes:

  • Increase the use of phytoestrogens, these have been shown to have cardio-protective effects.
  • Don’t eat too much fat and use the right ones- any oils and fats based in rapeseed oil (called canola oil in the USA) or olive oil have been found to be the most heart protective- these are what we have used in our recipes.  Rape seed oil is best because it contains both a high level of monosaturated fats and is rich in heart protecting omega 3 fats.  Olive oil is also an oil rich in monosaturated fats.
  • Other seed/nut oils are also healthy because they tend to be monosaturated and /or rich in omega 3 oil.  These include walnut oil, sesame seed oil, and linseed (flaxseed) oil.  They are especially good if used in salad dressings as they retain their best nutritional benefits if they are not heated.  Sunflower oil, rich in polyunsaturated fats, is also not too bad and may help to lower harmful fats in the blood.  However eating too much polyunsaturated fat may cause oxidative damage to the body.
  • Avoid a diet high saturated fats- these tend to be based on animal fats and are harder at room temperature. This includes lard, butter, cream and dripping.
  • Avoid trans fats- these are artificially hardened fats and oils and are found particularly in cheap pastries, pies and biscuits.
  • Cut down on your salt- salt increases your blood pressure which is a huge risk for stroke and heart disease.  In our recipes we have used the least salt necessary for flavour
  • Keep your weight down to sensible levels by eating good nutritious food but avoid the junk.


Weight issues

It is important to watch the weight as you get older.  It tends to be harder to lose weight as we age and easier to pile it on.  Excess weight after the menopause can contribute to increased cholesterol levels and other harmful blood fats, raised blood pressure, and increased risk of several cancers, worsening joint problems and diabetes. Eating nutritious food and avoiding the junk will help.

Some oils are better for us than others because of their balance of essential fatty acids (the omega 3 oils and omega 6 oils) and because they have less saturated fat (see above).  However all fats and oils, unless labelled reduces fat have the same number of calories which is roughly 900 calories per 100g or 45 calories per teaspoon!  So it is important to try and keep total fat intake down when watching our weight as fats are so calorie dense, but the fats and oils we do choose should be the healthier variety. Also, don’t forget we need to be active- you will be able to enjoy the recipes in this book even more if you are good and hungry for your next meal!

However, we should not aim to be too thin: The body continues to produce some oestrogen after the menopause, but it is manufactured in the adipose (fat) tissue rather than in the ovaries.  That is why it is not good to be too thin after the menopause as you miss out and producing some of our own natural oestrogen which may help to offset some of the menopausal symptoms.  Being too thin is also another risk factor for osteoporosis.


Menopausal symptoms and foods that may help



Hot flushes

All soya foods.  Linseed

Watch spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol

Lose weight if overweight


Mood Swings, Anxiety &   Irritability 

Regular eating, try and include a starchy food with each meal

    Foods high in magnesium such as brown rice, whole wheat, whole rye, beans, lentils and peas and green vegetables

Watch caffeine, sugary foods and alcohol



Avoid caffeine too late at night

Avoid eating a big meal late in the evening but try a bedtime snack which contains some milk or  yogurt and something starchy such as natural yoghurt and a banana or a rye crispbread with cottage cheese or just some hot milk and a couple of low fat biscuits.


Heavy Bleeding

Replace the lost iron with an iron rich diet, such as red meat, green vegetables, beans and sardines


Vaginal Dryness

Soya products such as tofu or soya milk or linseed may help this as it replaces lost oestrogen



Calcium rich foods and foods rich in Vitamin D.  Weight bearing exercise. Phytoestrogens rich foods may also help.


Night Sweats

Phytoestrogen rich foods as night sweats are also due to lack of oestrogen.

  Lose weight if overweight


Ageing skin

An anti-oxidant rich diet containing plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, wholegrains and seeds.

All foods high in Vitamin E such as nuts, avocados, seeds and oily fish.

Essential fatty acids such as those found in vegetable oil, nuts and fish oils.



A diet containing plenty of oily fish.

If you drink a lot of alcohol, then make sure you have a diet rich in B vitamins, such as meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese and wholegrain cereals.


Joint pains

Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, the oil found in oily fish (omega 3 fat) is believed to help alleviate joint pains.

Low oestrogen levels can bring on joint pains too, so foods rich in phytoestrogens

Lose weight to minimise strain on jpoints if overweight



Reduce the salt in the diet by not adding at the table, cooking with less and avoiding too many processed foods, especially cheaper ‘junky’ ones.  Keep the kidneys working efficiently by drinking plenty of fluid, especially plain water.


Constipation and IBS

Eat plenty of soluble fibre which is derived from beans, other pulses, oats, fruit and vegetables.

Drink around 2 litres of fluid a day and avoid too much caffeine and alcohol.

Try some foods enriched with probiotics.



To summarise

Eat a wide variety of foods. This will ensure the body get a mixture of all the nutrients it needs.  To maximise flavour and nutritional content, you should also try and eat food which has been made from really fresh ingredients- this will also negate the need to enhance the flavour with salt.

Eat lots of fruit and vegetables and use ingredients based on wholegrains and foods which have not had their fibre rich outer layers removed.  This ensures we get the maximum nutritional value from the food and the fibre too!

Eat a little starch with every meal, e.g. brown rice, pasta, wholegrain bread or breakfast cereals.  The combination of a good quality starch regulates blood sugar effectively. Each main meal should also contain some protein and lots of vegetables or salad.  A diet containing plenty of phytoestrogens may help to combat many menopausal symptoms.

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Tuesday, April 10th, 2012

#Menopuse: top ten tips

  1. Eat a variety of foods: This will ensure your body gets a mixture of all the nutrients you need.
  2. Eat the right amount for you. You may not need to eat as much as you did when you were younger unless you are very active
  3. Avoid excessive amounts of animal-based saturated fats; they may encourage weight gain and increase your cholesterol level.
  4. Have a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D (which helps you absorb calcium). Calcium is found in dairy foods, tofu, green vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans and fish with their bones in. As well as from sunlight, Vitamin D is found in oily fish, eggs and some fortified breakfast cereals.
  5. Eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily, and preferably 9!  This is to ensure that your body gets enough disease fighting phytochemicals. Along with wholegrain starchy foods, vegetables provide the mood-regulating mineral, magnesium, which is often low in menopausal women.
  6. Eat at least 2 portions of oily fish a week, or take a fish oil supplement. This will provide long chain omega 3 fatty acids that can help protect your heart and other organs.
  7. Have something starchy and rich in fibre with each meal, such as brown rice, brown pasta, wholegrain bread and breakfast cereals. This will help keep your bowels regular and will provide you with a long lasting supply of energy!
  8. Avoid excess alcohol and caffeine. They can be toxic to your body and will drain your energy. Alcohol and coffee may make hot flushes worse and pre-dispose you to osteoporosis, and alcohol may contribute to weight gain. Reducing your caffeine consumption may also help to alleviate any breast tenderness.
  9. Cut down on salt. This can lead to high blood pressure and may cause calcium to be lost from the bones, thus predisposing to osteoporosis. A high salt diet may also exacerbate bloating. To cut down on salt, reduce the amount of processed foods you eat and don’t add salt to your food.


10.  And finally, enjoy your food. Eating is more than just getting adequate nutrients- make it a social occasion!

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